Landscapes comprise multiple interconnected ecosystems that generate services to support people’s livelihoods, as is the case in Pacific Island countries, such as Fiji and Tonga. As seen in numerous case-studies around the world the effects of climate shocks/stressors or interventions in landscapes can propagate through a system and across scales to impact ecosystems and livelihoods. Also, socio-ecological systems, including landscapes, can respond non-linearly to change. This means apparently small changes in landscape management could have large consequences in terms of service provision, livelihoods, and capacity to buffer climate stressors.
Due to the complexity of landscape systems, and multiple factors operating at multiple scales, fully assessing the impact of change or interventions in landscapes is challenging. Effective, integrated and adaptive management of landscapes enhances livelihoods and moderates climate impacts.